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Professor Anthony J Cleare  BSc MBBS MRCPsych PhD
Professor of Psychopharmacology and Affective Disorders
Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist
Head, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders

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Institute of Psychiatry
Box  P074
De Crespigny Park
United Kingdom, SE5 8AF

location 103 Denmark Hill
departmentsPsychological Medicine
alsoNeurobiology of Mood Disorders


Professor Cleare obtained a degree in psychology (B.Sc.) and a degree in medicine (MB.BS.) from the University of London, graduating in 1990. He then undertook postgraduate training in psychiatry within the Maudsley training scheme, and obtained his Membership of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1994, being awarded the Laughlin Prize for the highest performance nationally in the Membership examination. In 1998, he obtained a higher degree (Ph.D.) in Psychiatry from the University of London; in 2000 he was awarded the annual clinical psychopharmacology prize of the British Association for Psychopharmacology; and in 2008 the Prize for Senior Psychopharmacologists of the British Association for Psychopharmacology. He has undertaken both a clinical and an academic training in psychiatry, and currently holds the following positions: (a) a substantive academic appointment (Reader 2006; Professor from Sept 2011) at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, where he is the Head of the Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders; and (b) a substantive clinical appointment as a Consultant Psychiatrist at the Maudsley and Bethlem Royal Hospitals, where he runs the inpatient unit of the National Affective Disorders Unit. He was previously a Consultant in Liaison Psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital and King’s College Hospital. He has contributed approximately 300 papers, book chapters, articles and abstracts to the scientific literature on a variety of aspects of psychiatry and psychology. As of early 2011, Scopus lists his research publications as having ~3000 citations, with a current citation rate of ~500/year; six papers have >100 citations and 17 >50 citations. He is listed in Essential Science Indicators (ESI) as being within the top 1% in psychiatry and the top 1% across all disciplines in terms of citations over the last 10 years. ESI listed the 2010 paper on XMRV infection and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as the fourth most cited paper published in 2010 in the world literature for Clinical Medicine.

activities and interests

Current research interests

Professor Cleare maintains an active programme of clinical research in depression, and is part of the Biomedical Research Centre at SLaM and the IOP.

A major focus of his research is to continue the work understanding the aetiology, neurobiology and long-term outcome of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). He has published a new tool for staging the severity of treatment resistance – The Maudsley Staging Method – a hitherto underresearched area. His group is interested in developing biomarkers for depression, particularly neuroendocrine factors (e.g. the cortisol response to awakening; the cortisol/DHEA ratio; and the prednisolone suppression test). This work is centred in the Affective Disorders Research Laboratory based at the Bethlem Royal Hospital,

Other research interests include:
- the neuroendocrinology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS),
- the potential effects of mobile phone radiation and police radio (TETRA) radiation on neuroendocrine systems and the relation of mobile phone hypersensitivity symptoms to neuroendocrine effects.
- f-MRI studies in depression investigating the neural correlates of separate symptom constructs in depression (affective, behavioural and cognitive); the effects of pharmacotherapy on these brain networks; the effects of psychological therapy on these networks; and early neural markers of treatment response in depression.
- the neuropsychiatric effects of interferon-alpha
- the role of inflammatory markers in depression and TRD.

Previous research work

Professor Cleare has previously published much work in the neurobiology of depression. Significant findings include the following:
- clarifying the serotonergic deficits present in major depression, including the first demonstration that 5-HT-1D receptors are disrupted and also relating 5-HT function to treatment response and thyroid function
- the use of f-MRI to investigate pharmacological effects in depression, and published a paper in the Archives of General Psychiatry that was the first to demonstrate that serotonergic antidepressants normalise abnormal emotional processing (an enhanced neural response to negative emotional stimuli) in depression
- the development of a new suppressive test in depression (using prednisolone) that improves on existing suppressive tests and predicts treatment outcome in severe treatment resistant depression

Other work has included the development of a pragmatic clinical marker for poor outcome (discrepancy between self and observer ratings in depression).

Professor Cleare’s research group has also made a major contribution to the international literature in understanding the role of neuroendocrinological factors in CFS. They have defined the core neuroendocrine deficits seen in CFS, primarily lowered basal HPA axis function, and demonstrated that the HPA axis shows an impaired response to dynamic challenge. Also, their randomised controlled trial of low dose cortisol replacement therapy, published in the Lancet, demonstrated reduced fatigue levels in patients on active treatment compared to placebo. Subsequent prospective cohort have suggested that HPA axis changes occur late in the course of illness, possibly secondary to factors such as inactivity, deconditioning, sleep disturbance and chronic stress. They have also shown that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can increase cortisol levels in CFS, but that those with the most disrupted HPA axis respond less well to CBT.

Other neurobiological aspects of CFS found by Professor Cleare’s research group include: altered 5-HT function that is distinct in some aspects from depression; reduced brain 5-HT-1A receptors on PET; the presence of immunological disturbances; the need clinically to exclude untreated coeliac disease, which now forms part of routine clinical guidance; and changes to the autonomic nervous system. They also confirmed that simple interventions to maintain physical activity after glandular fever can prevent chronic fatigue. Most recently the group has focussed on the role of retrovirus (XMRV) infection in CFS.

Other Academic Interests

Professor Cleare also maintains a strong teaching focus and chairs the Departmental PhD Committee overseeing over 100 PhD students, as well as having personally supervised numerous research students. He provides regular peer review for over 40 different peer-reviewed journals, including those based internationally and in a variety of disciplines including psychiatry, general medicine, pharmacology, endocrinology, psychology, rheumatology and neuroscience, and for numerous grant applications.

His research group hosts the International Society for Affective Disorders (ISAD) and the Section of Affective Disorders of the World Psychiatric Association.

teaching activities

Clinical Psychology ( DClinPsy ) » Doctorate
Psychiatric Research » Masters (MSc)
Maudsley Training Programme » MRCPsych



1. Furnham A, Cleare A (1988). School children’s conceptions of economics: prices, wages, investments and strikes. Journal of Economic Psychology, 9: 467-479.

2. Cleare AJ, Jacoby R, Tovey S, Bergmann K (1993). Syphilis, neither dead nor buried: a survey of psychogeriatric inpatients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8: 661-664.

3. Cleare AJ, Bond AJ (1994). Effects of alterations in plasma tryptophan levels on aggressive feelings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51: 1004-1005.


4. Cleare AJ, Bond AJ (1995). The effect of tryptophan depletion and enhancement on subjective and behavioural aggression in normal male subjects. Psychopharmacology, 118: 72-81.

5. Cleare AJ, Bearn J, Allain T, McGregor A, Wessely S, Murray RM, O’Keane V (1995). Contrasting neuroendocrine responses in depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Affective Disorders, 34: 283-289.

6. Cleare AJ, McGregor A, O’Keane V (1995). Neuroendocrine evidence for an association between hypothyroidism, reduced central 5-HT activity and depression. Clinical Endocrinology, 43: 713-719.

7. Cleare AJ, Bond AJ (1995). Relationship of plasma tryptophan and blood serotonin to aggression, mood and anxiety in males. Journal of Serotonin Research, 2: 77-84.

8. Cleare AJ (1995). Deciding which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to prescribe. British Medical Journal, 311: 1641.

9. Cleare AJ (1995). Treating depression: the role of the new antidepressants. In: The Medical Book 1995/6, ed M Hart. National Publications, London, England.

10. Cleare AJ (1995). Aggressive feelings and tryptophan. Clinical Pearls News in Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, 5: 41-51.


11. Cleare AJ, Wessely SC (1996). Chronic fatigue syndrome, depression and anxiety: where’s the link? International Psychiatry Today, 6: 1-5.

12. Cleare AJ, Wessely SC (1996) Chronic fatigue syndrome: an update. Postgraduate Update, 52: 61-69.

13. Cleare AJ, Murray RM, O’Keane V (1996). Reduced prolactin and cortisol responses to D-fenfluramine in major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 14: 349-354.

14. Cleare AJ, McGregor A, Chambers S, Dawling S, O’Keane V (1996) Thyroxine replacement increases central 5-HT activity and reduces depressive symptoms in hypothyroidism. Neuroendocrinology, 64: 65-69.

15. Cleare AJ (1996). Phentermine, psychosis and family history. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16: 470-471.

16. Cleare AJ, O’Keane V (1996). Serotonergic neurotransmission in chronic fatigue syndrome. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41: 129-130. (correspondence)

17. Cleare AJ, Wessely SC (1996). Fluoxetine and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet, 347:1770. (correspondence)

18. Cleare AJ, Wessely S (1996) Chronic fatigue syndrome - a stress disorder? British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 55: 571-574.

19. Cleare AJ (1996) Dietary tryptophan and aggression. In: The Experts Speak, ed K Hamilton. PA publications, Sacramento, California, USA.


20. Cleare AJ, Keating J, Ealing J, Sherwood R (1997) A case of coeliac disease detected via raised 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Annals of Biochemistry, 34: 1-2.

21. Cleare AJ, Bond AJ (1997). Does central serotonergic function correlate inversely with aggression? A study using D-fenfluramine in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research, 69: 89-95.

22. Cleare AJ (1997) Reduced whole blood serotonin in major depression. Depression and Anxiety, 5: 108-111.

23. Abel KM, Murray RM, O’Keane V, Cleare AJ (1997). Serotonergic function and negative and depressive symptomatology in schizophrenia and major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22: 539-548.

24. Cleare AJ (1997) Psychiatric aspects of chronic fatigue syndrome. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 4: 659-662.

25. Cleare AJ, Wessely SC (1997) Just what the doctor ordered - more alcohol and sex. British Medical Journal, 315: 1637-8. (Editorial)

26. Cleare AJ (1997) Recent advances in chronic fatigue syndrome. CML Psychiatry, 8: 95-100.

27. Cleare AJ, Wessely S (1997) Chronic fatigue syndrome: a stress disorder? Journal of Applied Medicine, 23: 259-266.

28. Bond AJ, Cleare AJ (1997) Manipulation of serotonergic status related to subjective and behavioural measures of aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 41: 1147. (Correspondence)

29. Cleare AJ, Murray RM, O’Keane V (1997). Do noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors affect serotonin function in major depression? Psychopharmacology, 134: 406-410.


30. Cleare AJ, Forsling M, Bond AJ (1998). Neuroendocrine and thermoregulatory effects of 5-HT1A receptor stimulation in healthy men: a placebo controlled study. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13: 23-32.

31. Cleare AJ, Murray RM, O’Keane V (1998). Assessment of serotonergic function in major depression using D-fenfluramine: relation to clinical variables and antidepressant response. Biological Psychiatry, 44: 555-562.

32. Cleare AJ, Murray RM, Sherwood R, O’Keane V (1998). Abnormal 5-HT1D receptor function in major depression: a neuropharmacological challenge study using sumatriptan. Psychological Medicine, 28: 295-300.

33. Cleare AJ (1998) Neurochemistry. In: A Research Portfolio on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, ed R Fox, The Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, pp 38-43.

34. Reid S, Chalder T, Hotopf M, Cleare A, Wessely S (1998-2007) Chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical Evidence, 2: 397-405. (Updated 6 monthly, currently 17th edition).

35. Cleare AJ, Wessely SC (1998) Clinics in controversy: chronic fatigue syndrome. Postgraduate Update, 56: 1016-1026.


36. Cleare AJ (1999) Chronic fatigue syndrome – the evidence. The Journal of Rajasthan Voluntary Health Association, 5: 7-10.

37. Cleare AJ (1999) Dynamic endocrine testing and neuroimaging of serotonergic function in depression. CNS, 2: 20-22.

38. Abel K, Cleare AJ (1999). Peripheral hormonal responses to D-fenfluramine as a probe of central serotonergic function in humans. Psychopharmacology, 142: 68-72.

39. Reed LJ, Winstock A, Cleare AJ, McGuire PK (1999) Toxic effect of MDMA on brain serotonin neurones. Lancet, 353: 1268. (Correspondence)

40. Cleare AJ, Heap E, Malhi G, Wessely S, O’Keane V, Miell J (1999). Low-dose hydrocortisone in chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomised crossover trial. Lancet, 353: 455-458.

41. Wingrove J, Bond AJ, Cleare AJ (1999). Plasma tryptophan and trait aggression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13: 235-237.

42. Wingrove J, Bond AJ, Sherwood R, Cleare AJ (1999). Trait hostility and prolactin responses to tryptophan enhancement and depletion. Neuropsychobiology, 40: 202-206.

43. Hudson M, Cleare AJ (1999). The 1?g short synacthen test in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical Endocrinology, 51: 625-630.

44. Cleare AJ, O’Keane V, Miell JP (1999) Hydrocortisone and chronic fatigue syndrome - Reply. Lancet, 353: 1619-1620. (Correspondence)

45. Wingrove J, Bond AJ, Cleare AJ (1999). Tryptophan enhancement/depletion and reactions to failure on a co-operative computer game. Neuropsychopharmacology, 21: 755-764.


46. Cleare AJ, Bond AJ (2000). Experimental evidence that the aggressive effect of tryptophan depletion is mediated via the 5-HT1A receptor. Psychopharmacology, 147: 439-441.

47. Cleare AJ, Bond AJ (2000). Ipsapirone challenge in aggressive men: inverse correlation between 5-HT1A receptor function and aggression. Psychopharmacology, 148: 344-349.

48. Cleare AJ (2000) The 1 microgram synacthen test in CFS – Reply. Clinical Endocrinology, 52: 798-799. (Correspondence)

49. Reid S, Chalder T, Hotopf M, Cleare AJ, Wessely S (2000) Extracts from clinical evidence: chronic fatigue syndrome. British Medical Journal, 320: 292-296.

50. Richards S, Cleare AJ (2000) Treating fibromyalgia. Rheumatology, 39: 343-346.

51. Cleare AJ, Sookdeo S, Jones, J, O’Keane V, Miell J (2000). Integrity of the GH/IGF axis is maintained in chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85: 1433-1439.

52. Richards S, Cleare A (2000) Biological correlates of fibromyalgia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 13: 623-628.

53. Cleare AJ, Wessely S (2000) Chronic fatigue syndrome. In Encyclopædia of Stress, ed G Fink. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 460-467.

54. Chalder T, Cleare A, Wessely S (2000) Management of Fatigue and Anxiety in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In: The Management of Stress and Anxiety in Medical Disorders, eds. Mostofsky D. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, pp 160-179.

55. Cleare AJ (2000) Affective Disorders. In: Core Postgraduate Psychiatry, eds P Wright, J Stern, M Phelan. WB Saunders, London, pp 293-316.


56. Wessely SC, Cleare AJ (2001) Affective disorders. In: Postgraduate Psychiatry, 2nd edition, eds L Appleby, D Forshaw, T Amos, H Barker. Arnold, London, pp 186-208.

57. Cleare AJ, Blair D, Chambers S, Wessely S (2001). Urinary free cortisol in chronic fatigue syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158: 641-643.

58. Skowera A, Peakman M, Cleare A, Davies E, Deale A, Wessely S, (2001). High prevalence of serum markers of coeliac disease in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 54: 335-336.

59. Cleare AJ (2001) Regulatory disturbances of energy. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine, 22:17-34.

60. Cleare AJ, Sookdeo S, Jones J, O’Keane V, Miell J (2001). Plasma leptin in chronic fatigue syndrome, and a placebo-controlled study of the effects of low-dose hydrocortisone on leptin secretion. Clinical Endocrinology, 55, 113-119.

61. Cleare AJ, Miell J, Heap E, Sookdeo S, Young L, Malhi GS, O’Keane V (2001). Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function in chronic fatigue syndrome, and the effects of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86: 3545-3554.

62. Stanton BR, David AS, Cleare AJ, Phillips M, Sierra-Seigert M, Lambert M, Porter RJ, Young AH (2001). Basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with depersonalisation disorder. Psychiatry Research, 104: 85-89.

63. Parker A, Wessely S, Cleare AJ (2001). The neuroendocrinology of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Psychological Medicine, 31: 1331-1345.

64. Cleare AJ, Wessely S (2001) Chronic fatigue syndrome. In Encyclopædia of Life Sciences, Nature Publishing Group.


65. Gaab, J, Cleare AJ (2002) Fibromyalgie und chronisches erschopfungssyndrom. In: Verhaltens Medizin, Ed Ulrike Ehlert, Springer-Lehrbuch, Berlin, pp 471-495.

66. International CFIDS Consensus Group (2002). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: What role does the autonomic nervous system play in the pathophysiology of this complex illness? NeuroImmunoModulation, 10, 134-141.

67. Skowera A, Stewart E, Davis ET, David A, Cleare AJ, Unwin C, Hull L, Ismail K, Wessely S, Peakman M (2002). Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in Gulf war-related illness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 129:354-8.

68. Candy B, Chalder T, Cleare AJ, White P, Wessely S, Hotopf M (2002). Recovery from glandular fever: a case for more than symptomatic therapy? A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice, 52, 844-851.


69. Cleare AJ (2003). Glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptors: mediators of fatigue? Acta Neuropsychiatrica 15, 341-353.

70. Juruena MF, Cleare AJ, Bauer M, Pariante CM (2003). Molecular mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Receptors sensitivity and relevance to affective disorders. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 15, 354-367.

71. Candy B, Chalder T, Cleare AJ, Wessely S, Peakman M, Zuckerman M, Skowera A, Weinman J, Hotopf M (2003). Predictors of fatigue following the onset of infectious mononucleosis. Psychological Medicine, 33, 847-855.

72. Reeves W, Lloyd A, Vernon S, Klimas N, Jason LA, Bleijenberg G, Evengard B, White PD, Nisenbaum R, Unger ER and The International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group (2003). Identification of ambiguities in the 1994 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Case Definition and recommendations for resolution. BioMed Central Health Services Research, 3, 25.

73. Cleare AJ (2003). The Neuroendocrinology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Endocrine Reviews, 24, 236-252.

74. Cleare AJ (2003) Mood disorders in the general hospital setting. Psychiatry, 2, 22-24.

75. Cleare AJ (2003) Neuroendocrine dysfunction and CFS. In: Handbook of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, ed L Jason, P Fennell, R Taylor. Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey pp 331-362.

76. Cleare AJ (2003) Neurobiology of chronic fatigue syndrome. Biannual Review of the National Association of Primary Care, January 2003.

77. Lee W, Cleare AJ (2003) Lithium augmentation in treatment-refractory unipolar depression. Br J Psychiatry, 182, 456-7 (correspondence)


78. Cleare AJ (2004) Biological models of unipolar depression. In: Mood Disorders: a Handbook of Science and Practice, ed M Power. Wiley, Chichester, Sussex, UK, pp 29-46.

79. Cleare AJ (2004) Unipolar Depression. In: Core Postgraduate Psychiatry, Second Edition, eds P Wright, J Stern, M Phelan. WB Saunders, London, (In press).

80. Roberts ADL, Wessely S, Chalder T, Papadopoulos A, Cleare AJ (2004). Salivary cortisol response to awakening in chronic fatigue syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry 184, 136-141.

81. Skowera A, Cleare AJ, Blair D, Bevis L, Wessely S, Peakman M (2004). High levels of type 2 cytokine producing cells in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 135, 294-302.

82. Winkler AS, Wessely S, Blair D, Marsden JT, Peters TJ, Cleare AJ (2004). Autonomic function and serum erythropoietin levels in chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 179-183.

83. Cleare AJ (2004). Cortisol and the genesis of chronic fatigue syndrome. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 15, 55-59.

84. Cleare AJ, O’Keane V, Miell J (2004). Levels of DHEA and DHEAS and responses to CRH stimulation and hydrocortisone treatment in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 6, 724-732.

85. Candy B, Chalder T, Cleare AJ, Wessely S, Hotopf M (2004). A randomised controlled trial of a psycho-educational intervention to aid recovery in infectious mononucleosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 89-94.

86. Fu CHY, Williams SCR, Cleare AJ, Brammer MJ, Walsh ND, Kim J, Andrew C, Merlo Pich E, Williams PJ, Reed L, Mitterschiffthaler M, Suckling J, Bullmore ET (2004). Antidepressant treatment attenuates the neural response to sad faces in major depression: a prospective, event-related functional MRI study. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 877-889.

87. Rubin GR, Cleare AJ, Hotopf MH (2004). Psychosocial predictors of postoperative fatigue. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 959-964.

88. Pariante CM, Papadopoulos AS, Poon L, Cleare AJ, English J, Checkley S, Kerwin R, Lightman S (2004). Four days of citalopram increase suppression of cortisol secretion by prednisolone in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 177, 200-206.

89. Cleare AJ (2004). Stress and fibromyalgia – what is the link? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 423-425.

90. Juruena MF, Cleare AJ, Pariante CM (2004). Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis, glucocorticoid receptor function and relevance to depression. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 26, 189-201.

91. Reid S, Chalder T, Hotopf M, Cleare A, Wessely S (2005) Chronic fatigue syndrome. American Family Physician, Nov. 1, 2005 pp. 1793-1823.


92. Cleare AJ, Messa C, Rabiner E, Grasby P (2005). Brain 5-HT1A receptor binding in chronic fatigue syndrome measured using positron emission tomography and [11C]WAY-100635. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 239-246.

93. Maddock C, Landau S, Barry B, Maulayah P, Hotopf M, Cleare AJ, Norris S, Pariante CM (2005). Psychopathological symptoms during interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment: effects on virologic response. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 332-3.

94. DiGiorgio A, Hudson M, Jerjes W, Cleare AJ (2005). Circadian pattern of pituitary hormones in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 433-440.

95. Fu, T, Koutstaal W, Fu C, Poon L, Cleare AJ (2005). Depression, confidence and decision; evidence against depressive realism. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 27, 243 – 252.

96. Rubin GR, Hotopf MH, Cleare AJ (2005). Salivary cortisol as a predictor of postoperative fatigue Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 441-447.

97. Ranjith G, Farmer A, McGuffin P, Cleare AJ (2005). Determinants of social disability in tertiary care patients with treatment resistant affective disorder, Journal of Affective Disorders, 84, 73-76.

98. Rubia K, Lee F, Cleare AJ, Tunstall N, Fu C, Brammer M, McGuire P (2005). Tryptophan depletion reduces right inferior prefrontal activation during response inhibition in fast, event related f-MRI. Psychopharmacology, 179, 791-803.

99. Candy B, Hotopf M, Chalder T, Cleare AJ, Wessely S (2005). What advice do general practitioners give patients with glandular fever? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 435-437.

100. Fritz, EL, Smith J, Kerr JR, Cleare AJ, Wessely S, Mattey DL (2005). Association of chronic fatigue syndrome with human leukocyte antigen class II alleles, Journal of Clinical Pathology-Molecular Pathology, 58, 860-863.

101. Jerjes WK, Cleare AJ, Wessely S, Peters TJ, Taylor NF (2005). Salivary free cortisol and cortisone in chronic fatigue syndrome, Journal of Affective Disorders, 87, 299-304.


102. Jerjes W, Peters T, Taylor N, Wessely S, Cleare AJ (2006). Diurnal excretion of urinary cortisol, cortisone and cortisol metabolites in chronic fatigue syndrome, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 145-153.

103. Jerjes WK, Cleare AJ, Peters TJ, Taylor NF (2006). Assessment of subtle changes in glucocorticoid negative feedback using prednisolone: comparison of salivary free cortisol and urinary cortisol metabolites as endpoints. Clinica Chimica Acta, 364, 279-286.

104. Jerjes WK, Wessely S, Peters TJ, Taylor NF, Cleare AJ (2006). Urinary cortisol and cortisol metabolite excretion in chronic fatigue syndrome, Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 578-82.

105. Rubin GJ, Hahn G, Everitt BS, Cleare AJ, Wessely W (2006). Are some people sensitive to mobile phone signals? A within-participants, double-blind, randomised provocation study. British Medical Journal, 332, 886 - 891.

106. Jerjes W, Cleare AJ, Peters T, Taylor N. Circadian rhythm of urinary steroid metabolites (2006). Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 43, 287-294.

107. Allen PP, Cleare AJ, Lee F, Fusar-Poli P, Tunstall N, Fu CHY, Brammer MJ, McGuire PK (2006). The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on prefrontal engagement. Psychopharmacology, 187, 486-97.

108. Sauer J, Cleare AJ (2006) New-onset late-life bipolar affective disorder. Geriatric Medicine, 36, 6-10.

109. Juruena M, Cleare AJ, Papadopoulos AS, Poon L, Lightman S, Pariante CM (2006). Different response to dexamethasone and prednisolone in the same depressed patients. Psychopharmacology, 189, 225-235.

110. Jerjes WK, Taylor N, Cleare AJ (2006) Comment on Diurnal excretion of urinary cortisol, cortisone, and cortisol metabolites in chronic fatigue syndrome by Dr. Fenske. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 629.

111. Cho H J, Skowera A, Cleare A, Wessely S (2006). Chronic fatigue syndrome: an update focusing on phenomenology and pathophysiology. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, 67-73.

112. Cleare AJ, Wessely S (2006) Chronic fatigue syndrome. In: Encyclopædia of Stress, ed G Fink. Academic Press, San Diego (in press).

113. Cleare AJ (2006) Mood disorders in the general hospital setting. Psychiatry, 5, 134-137.


114. Walsh ND, Williams SCR, Brammer MJ, Bullmore ET, Kim J, Suckling J, Mitterschiffthaler MT, Cleare AJ, Pich EM, Mehta M, Fu CHY (2007). A longitudinal fMRI study of verbal working memory in depression following antidepressant therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 1236-1243.

115. Fu CHY, Williams SCR, Cleare AJ, Scott J, Mittershiffthaler MT, Walsh ND, Donaldson C, Suckling J, Andrew C, Steiner H, Murray RM (2007). Neural responses to sad facial expressions in major depression following cognitive behavioural therapy: a prospective fMRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 599-607.

116. Jerjes WK, Wood P, Taylor NF, Cleare AJ (2007). Enhanced feedback sensitivity to prednisolone in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 192-198.

117. Fu CHY, Williams SCR, Cleare AJ, Brammer MJ, Walsh ND, Kim J, Andrew C, Merlo Pich E, Williams PJ, Reed L, Mitterschiffthaler M, Suckling J, Bullmore ET (2007) Neural responses to happy facial expressions in major depression following antidepressant treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry,164, 599-607

118. Fekadu A, Alem A, Medhin G, Shibre T, Cleare A, Prince M, Kebede D (2007). Utility of the concept of minor depressive disorder: Evidence from a large rural community sample in a developing country setting. Journal of Affective Disorders, 104, 111-8

119. Fusar-Poli P, Allen PP, Lee F, Surguladze S, Tunstall N, Fu CHY, Brammer MJ, Cleare AJ, McGuire PK (2007). Modulation of neural response to happy and sad faces by acute tryptophan depletion. Psychopharmacology, 193, 31-44

120. Juruena MF, Cleare AJ (2007). Overlap between atypical depression, seasonal affective disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Brasil Psiquitr, 29 (supp 1,) S19-26.

121. Cleare AJ (2007) Mood disorders in the general hospital setting. The Foundation Years, 3, 197-200.


122. Rubin GJ, Cleare AJ, Wessely S (2008). Psychological factors associated with self-reported sensitivity to mobile phones. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 1-9.

123. Ehring T, Ehlers A, Cleare AJ, Glucksman E (2008). Do acute psychobiological responses to trauma predict subsequent PTSD and depression? Psychiatry Research, 161, 67-75.

124. Mitterschiffthaler M, Williams SCR, Murray RM, Scott J, Walsh N, Cleare AJ, Donaldson C, Fu CHY (2008). Neural basis of the emotional stroop interference effect in major depression. Psychological Medicine, 38, 247-256.

125. Kumari V, Aasen I, Papadopoulos A, Bojang F, Poon L, Halari R, Cleare AJ (2008). Pre- but not Post-Menopausal Women Show Less Prepulse Inhibition than Age-matched Men. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 2610-2618.

126. Carvalho LA, Juruena MF, Papadopoulos A, Poon L, Kerwin R, Cleare A, Pariante CM (2008). Clomipramine in vitro reduces GR function in whole blood cells from healthy subjects but not from depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 3182-3189.

127. Nieto-Hernandez R, Rubin GJ, Cleare AJ, Weinman JA, Wessely S (2008). Can evidence change belief? Reported mobile phone sensitivity following individual feedback of an inability to discriminate active from sham signals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 453-460

128. Marquand AF, Mourão-Miranda J, Brammer MJ, Cleare AJ, Fu CHY (2008). Functional neuroanatomy of verbal working memory as a diagnostic biomarker for depression. NeuroReport, 19, 1507-1511

129. Fu CHY, Williams SCR, Cleare AJ, Scott J, Mittershiffthaler MT, Walsh ND, Donaldson C, Suckling J, Andrew C, Steiner H, Murray RM (2008). Neural responses to sad facial expressions in major depression following cognitive behaviour therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 505-512.

130. Cleare A (2008). Adjunctive aripiprazole improves symptoms in antidepressant refractory major depressive disorder. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 11, 111.

131. Cleare AJ (2008), Mood disorders in the general hospital setting. Psychiatry, doi:10.1016/j.mppsy.2008.11.004


132. Cleare AJ (2009) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In: Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease, Springer.

133. Cleare AJ (2009) Depression: does it induce pain and fatigue? In: Depression: translational approaches to understanding and treating Editors: Carmine M. Pariante, Randolph Ness, David Nutt, Robin Murray, Lewis Wolpert.

134. Bull SJ, Huezo-Diaz P, Binder EB, Cubells JF, Ranjith G, Maddock C, Miyazaki C, Alexander N, Hotopf M, Cleare AJ, Norris S, Cassidy E, Aitchison KJ, Miller AH, and Pariante CM (2009). Functional Polymorphisms in the Interleukin-6 and Serotonin Transporter Genes and Depression and Fatigue Induced by Interferon-alpha and Ribavirin Treatment. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 1095-1104.

135. Papadopoulos A, Ebrecht M, Roberts ADL, Poon L, Rohleder N, Cleare AJ (2009). Glucocorticoid receptor mediated negative feedback in chronic fatigue syndrome using the low dose (0.5 mg) dexamethasone suppression test. Journal of Affective Disorders, 112 , 289-294

136. Lamar M, Cutter WJ, Daly EM, Brammer M, Rubia K, Cleare AJ, Murphy DGM (2009). 5-HT, prefrontal function and aging: fMRI inhibition and acute tryptophan depletion. Neurobiology of Aging, 30, 1135-1146.

137. Curtis C, Breen G, Cleare A, Peakman M, Wessely S (2009). Short Association Report: Lack of association between Persian Gulf War Illness and Apolipoprotein e4 Status. Psychiatric Genetics, (in press).

138. Fekadu A, Wooderson S, Donaldson C, Markopoulou K, Masterson B, Poon L, Cleare AJ (2009). A multidimensional tool to quantify treatment resistance in depression: The Maudsley Staging Method. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 177-184.

139. Roberts ADL, Papadopoulos AS, Wessely S, Chalder T, Cleare AJ (2009). Salivary cortisol output before and after cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115, 280-286.

140. Markopoulou K, Papadopoulos A, Juruena M, Poon L, Pariante CM, Cleare AJ (2009). The ratio of cortisol/DHEA in treatment resistant depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34, 19-26.

141. Juruena MF, Pariante CM, Papadopoulos AS, Poon L, Lightman S, Cleare AJ (2009). The prednisolone suppression test in depression: a prospective study of the role of HPA axis dysfunction in treatment resistance. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194, 342-349.

142. Fekadu A, Wooderson S, Markopoulou K, Donaldson C, Cleare AJ (2009). What happens to patients with treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review of medium to long term outcome studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 116, 4-11.

143. Halari R, Simic M, Pariante C, Papadopoulos A, Cleare AJ, Fombonne E, Rubia K (2009). Dysfunction of lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during cognitive and attentional control in adolescents with first episode major depressive disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 307-316.

144. Fekadu A, Wooderson S, Markopoulou K, Cleare AJ (2009) The Maudsley Staging Method for Treatment Resistant Depression: Prediction of longer-term outcome and persistence of symptoms Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 952-957.

145. Datta V, Cleare AJ (2009). Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder: focus on bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 2, 423-434.

146. Godfrey E, Coddington A, Cleare AJ, Roberts A, Weinman J, Chalder T (2009). Chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents: do parental expectations of their child’s intellectual ability match the child’s ability? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 67, 165-168.

147. Kumari V, Konstantinou J, Aasen I, Papadopoulos A, Poon L, Halari R, Cleare AJ (2009). Evidence for a Role of Progesterone in Menstrual Cycle Related Variability in Prepulse Inhibition in Healthy Young Women. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 929-937.

2010/In Press

148. Erlwein O, Kaye S, McClure MO, Weber J, Wills G, Collier D, Wessely S, Cleare AJ (2010). Failure to detect the novel retrovirus XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome. PLOSOne, 5(1):e8519.

149. Juruena MF, Giampietro VP, Smith SD, Surguladze SA, Dalton JA, Benson PJ, Cleare AJ, Fu CHY (2010). Amygdala responsivity to masked happy and sad facial expressions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 383-387

150. Roberts ADL, Charler M, Papadopoulos AS, Wessely S, Chalder T, Cleare AJ (2010). Does hypocortisolism predict a poor response to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Psychological Medicine, 40, 515-522.

151. Juruena MF, Pariante CM, Papadopoulos A, Cleare AJ (2010). The development and application of the prednisolone suppression test in psychiatry: a novel tool for assessing glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor function. Mind & Brain, the Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 115-122.

152. Daly E, Deeley Q, Hallahan B, Craig M, Brammer M, Lamar M, Cleare A, Giampietro V, Ecker C, Page L, Toal F, Phillips M, Surguladze S, Murphy D (2010). Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on neural processing of facial expressions of emotions. Psychopharmacology, 210, 499-510.

153. Rane L, Fekadu A, Wooderson S, Poon L, Markopoulou K, Cleare AJ (2010). Discrepancy between observer and self-rated severity in treatment resistant depression—prediction of treatment outcome. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44, 1082-1087.

154. Juruena MF, Cleare AJ, Papadopoulos AS, Poon L, Lightman S, Pariante CM (2010). The prednisolone suppression test in depression: dose response and changes with antidepressant treatment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 1486-1491.

155. Cole J, Toga AW, Hojatkashani C, Thompson P, Costafreda SG, Cleare AJ, Williams SCR, Bullmore ET, Scott JL, Mitterschiffthaler MT, Walsh ND, Donaldson C, Mirza M, Marquand A, Nosarti C, McGuffin P, Fu CHY (2010). Subregional hippocampal deformations in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 126, 272-277.

156. Fekadu A, Shibre T, Cleare AJ (2010). Toxoplasmosis as a cause for behaviour disorders—Overview of evidence and mechanisms. Folia Parasitologica, 57, 105-113.

157. Tak LM, Cleare AJ, Ormel J, Wessely S, Kok IC, Rosmalen JGM (2010). Meta-analysis and meta-regression of HPA-axis activity in functional somatic disorders. Biological Psychology (in press).

158. Wooderson SC, Juruena MF, Fekadu A, Commane C, Donaldson C, Cowan M, Tomlinson M, Poon L, Markopoulou K, Rane L, Donocik J, Tunnard C, Masterson B, Cleare AJ. Prospective evaluation of specialist inpatient treatment for refractory affective disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders (in press).

159. Peters S, Cleare AJ, Papadopoulos A, Fu CHY (2010). Cortisol responses to serial MRI scans in healthy adults and in depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, (in press).

160. Nieto-Hernandez R, Williams J, Cleare AJ, Landau S, Wessely S, Rubin GJ. Can exposure to Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) signals cause subjective symptoms? A randomized double blind provocation study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, (in press).

161. Erlwein O, Robinson M, Kaye S, Wills G, Izui S, Wessely S, Weber J, Cleare A, Collier D, Evans LH, McClure MO (2011). Further investigation into the presence of and serological response to XMRV in CFS patients. PLOSOne (in press).

last updated: Tuesday, March 29, 2011